2023 Bipolar Disorder: 2023 Update (Roger McIntyre, MD, FRCPC)
Bipolar disorders (BD) are a group of severe lifelong disorders that are associated with staggering loss of human capital, loss of healthy living years as well as lifespan. Although mania is the defining feature of bipolar I disorder, and hypomania with at least one depressive episode defining bipolar II disorder, it is well-established that depressive symptoms and episodes are the predominant illness presentation. The predominance of depressive symptoms across bipolar subtypes is apparent not only at the first illness presentation but also along the longitudinal course.
An unmet need in bipolar disorder remains the staggering misdiagnosis rate and the delay in determining that the diagnosis is present. This prolongs human suffering, increases morbidity and mortality, service utilization, healthcare costs and necessarily fosters progression of the illness. As most individuals with bipolar disorder are initially incorrectly diagnosed, treatment selection is often inappropriate, further promoting negative health outcomes.Download Full Summary